The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), an agency of the United Nations (UN), has designated specific Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMCs) and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWCs) throughout the world as agencies responsible for issuing tropical cyclone forecasts and warnings in each of the ocean basins. A list of ocean basins and the responsible RSMCs and TCWCs are shown in the following figure:
Forecasts are also issued by other agencies not specifically designated by the WMO, including the U.S. Navy’s Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center, the Canadian Hurricane Centre, and various private companies. While private companies typically create specialized hurricane forecasts primarily for their clients, some of these companies share certain products they develop with governmental agencies or the general public free of charge.
For all tropical cyclones that may impact the United States (excluding Hawaii), the NHC is the primary institution responsible for issuing hurricane forecasts. United States watches and warnings are jointly determined by the NHC and local National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs). Before, during, and after a U.S. landfall, NWS WFOs provide forecasts of local hurricane impacts, including storm surge, wind damage, and inland flooding from rainfall (see Hurricane Hazards and Impacts).