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Hurricanes: Science and Society
Projections of Future Hurricane Activity - References, Additional Links, and Resources
  • "AOML FAQ Question G3- How might global warming change hurricane intensity, frequency, and rainfall?." (Link)
  • Anthes, R. A., R. W. Corell, G. Holland, J.-W. Hurrell, M. MacCracken, and K. E. Trenberth, 2006, "Hurricanes and global warming - Potential linkages and consequences." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87, 623-628.(Link)
  • Bender, M. A., T. R. Knutson, R. E. Tuleya, J. J. Sirutis, G. A. Vecchi, S. T. Garner, and Isaac Held, 2010, "Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes.." Science, 327, 454-458, doi:10.1126/science.1180568.(Link)
  • Emanuel, K., 2002, "A simple model of multiple climate regimes." J. Geophys. Res., 107(0), doi:10.1029/2001JD001002.(Link)
  • Emanuel, K., 2005, "Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years." Nature, 436, 686-688.(Link)
  • Emanuel, K., 2007a, "Environmental factors affecting tropical cyclone power dissipation." J. Climate, 20, 5497–5509.(Link)
  • Emanuel, K., 2008, "The hurricane-climate connection." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89, ES10-ES20.(Link)
  • Goldenberg S. B., C. W. Landsea, A. M. Mestas-Nunez, and W. M. Gray, 2001, "The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: Causes and implications." Science, 293, 474-479.(Link)
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007, "IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007." (Link)
  • Knutson, T. R., J. J. Sirutis, S. T. Garner, G. A. Vecchi, and I. M. Held, 2008, "Simulated reduction in Atlantic hurricane frequency under 21st century warming conditions." Nature Geoscience, 1, 359-364.
  • Knutson, T. R., J. McBride, J. Chan, K. A. Emanuel, G. Holland, C. Landsea, I. Held, J. Kossin, A. K. Srivastava, and M. Sugi, 2010, "Tropical cyclones and climate change." Nature Geoscience, 3, 157-163,doi:doi:10.1038/ngeo779.(Link)
  • Kossin, J. P., 2008, "Is the North Atlantic hurricane season getting longer?." Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L23705.(Link)
  • Kuhlbrodt, T., A. Griesel, M. Montoya, A. Levermann, M. Hofmann, and S. Rahmstorf, 2007, "On the driving processes of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation." Rev. Geophys. 45, RG2001, doi:10.1029/2004RG000166.(Link)
  • Landsea, C, G. A. Vecchi, L. Bengtsson, and T. R. Knutson, 2010, "Increases in Atlantic tropical cyclone counts since the late 1800s are likely due to advances in observations and analyses." Journal of Climate. in press.
  • Shen, W., R.E. Tuleya, and I. Ginis, 2000, "A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: implications for global warming." J. Climate, 13, 109-121.
  • Vecchi, G A., and Thomas R. Knutson, 2008, "On estimates of historical North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity." Journal of Climate, 21(14), 3580-3600.(Link)
  • Vecchi, G. A., and B. J. Soden, 2007, "Increased tropical Atlantic wind shear in model projections of global warming." Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L08702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028905.(Link)
  • Vecchi, G. A., K. L. Swanson, and B. J. Soden, 2008, "Whither hurricane activity." Science, 322(5902), doi:10.1126/science.1164396.(Link)
  • Webster, P. J., G. J. Holland, J. A. Curry, and H.-R. Chang, 2005, "Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment." Science. 309, 1844-1846.(Link)
Additional Links on HSS
Additional Resources
  • (video), "The Hurricane-Climate Connection (narrated by K. Emanuel)." (Link)
  • Hayden, T., 2006, "Super Storms." National Geographic Magazine.(Link)
  • Pielke, R. A., C. Landsea, M. Mayfield, J. Laver, and R. Pasch, 2005, "Hurricanes and global warming - Potential linkages and consequences." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 86, 1571-1575.
  • Thomas R. Knutson, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), "Global Warming and Hurricanes." (Link)